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Colin James Hamer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Zecharia Sitchin, to the Sitchin Studies Association and to Joseph S. Ellul for graciously permitting him to use a range of significant © texts and illustrations.Inanna clothed in a PALA garment and wearing the SHU.GAR.RA helmet - 4000 years-old statue from Mari

The "12th" Planet - Origin of Earth & Home of Man's Creator


Zecharia Sitchin's Hypothesis - A Preliminary Assessment


Colin James Hamer

Preliminary LibrArian I+N The Neith Network


Lecture to RILKO

(Research into Lost Knowledge Organisation)
at 41 Queensgate, London SW7
New Moon in Aries, Friday, 31st March 1995

This Revised & Expanded Electronic Edition
Copyright © Colin James Hamer 2000



Preface - Malta's Temple Under The Sea


Zecharia Sitchin's Hypothesis

Annunaki Influence on Human Development

Continuing Annunaki Participation after the Flood in Terrestrial & Human Affairs

Complementary Reference Data: B.C. 15,000,000,000 - 30,000 - 943 - A.D. 6 - 461 - 723 - 1000 - 1492 - 1999

Insert (25 April 1995)

Contemporary Relevance of & Preliminary Conclusions arising from Sitchin's Reported Findings

Appendix (10 March 1996)

End Note: Participation in current debate can be fun, certainly generates plenty of heat and excitement, and seems to keep quite a lot of people at least relatively happy, cf., e.g.: IAN LAWTON & CHRIS OGILVIE-HERALD, Giza: The Truth - The People, Politics and History Behind the World's Most Famous Archæological Site (Virgin 1999).

Preface - Malta's Temple Under The Sea

S. A. Scicluna's too long neglected letter throws fresh light on recent claims and counter-claims and discussions about Malta's prediluvial under-the-sea temple.

Academician Doctor John David Solomon (1906-1998) was the field-geologist in Louis Leakey's team at Olduvai Gorge during the crucially important pioneering years, beginning from the 1928-29 season onwards. Much important information regarding his subsequent life and work is made freely available on one of our companion websites - and more still can be made available on disk or CD to interested researchers.

Malta's here featured and older-than-Noah's-ark under-the-sea temple is either part of, or near neighbour to the largest known prehistoric structure on planet Earth, and Maltese diver-photographer Shaun Arrigo's first professional visit to the former very largely owes its success to prior advice and assistance freely given to him about the latter by octogenarian amateur archologist Joseph S. Ellul, author of Malta's Prediluvian Culture at the Stone-Age Temples with special reference to Ħaġar Qim, Għar Dalam, Cart-ruts, Il-Misqa, il-Maqluba and Creation (Malta: Printwell, 1988 and updated 1994 German translation: Die Steinzeittempel Maltas und ihre Vorsintflutliche Kultur mit besonderem bezug zu Ħaġar Qim, Għar Dalam, Cart-ruts, Il-Misqa, Il-Maqluba & Schpfung), the only currently available detailed and authoritative source of factual information about the true alignment of all Malta's and Gozo's prehistoric temples - not to the Sun (save for one of the temples at Mnajdra), but to the major-standstills of the Moon - despite Mario Vassallo's imaginative claims in a 3-part article in Malta's "The Sunday Times", 23 & 30 January and 6 February 2000, only one of the Mnajdra Temples was deliberately oriented to the Sun. I am also greatly indebted to Joseph Ellul for several related oral and written personal communications from which he has also kindly given me permission to quote.

For additional and accessible, well illustrated, background information, cf. R. E. Leakey, Human Origins (Hamish Hamilton 1982), R. Raikes, Water, Weather and Prehistory (New Jersey: Humanities Press 1984) and J. D. Solomon, "The Pleistocene Succession in Uganda", in T. P. O'Brien, The Prehistory of Uganda Protectorate (Cambridge University Press 1939), pp.15-50. Some of the photographs and sketches Richard E. Leakey has published to illustrate geological features observed on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana (op.cit., pp.16-17), even if explicable in the way he suggests, are undoubtedly problematic, and a final judgment as to what event or series of events actually caused these and similar phenomena cannot yet responsibly be pronounced.



Few, if any, of you will have read my advertisement in Forum - The International Journal of Human Relations ( Vol. 27 No. 12 & Vol. 28 Nos. 1-3, 1994): "Personal, strictly non-commercial, gracious discipline through self-correction, mediated by Raja Yogi, tantric initiate, alchemist, shaman, catholic priest."

Most of you know that "there are several systems of yoga. Each one may seem to a beginner to lay greater stress on one aspect, than on the others, i.e., either on the body (Asanas and Pranayama) or the vital being (Bhakti) or the mind (Meditation). But that is to suit, especially in the first few stages, the nature of the aspirant. All these aspects are interconnected and interdependent, and for a full result all of the disciplines must be practised... according to the need of the individual. It must be remembered that the aim of yoga is to find the Divine Presence in and around us, and awaken it in all the planes and parts of our personality, so that a Divine Perfection may manifest on Earth. One should keep one's focus on this goal in order to derive maximum and speedy benefits from the teachings." (Navajata, Chairman, Sri Aurobindo Society, Foreword to Kevin & Venika Kingsland's Hathapradipika - The Means by which Constant Change may be transcended to reveal the Eternal Light of the Self, Grael Communications, Torquay, 1977.)

"If you are going to evolve in your spiritual uniqueness and individuality of expression, it is," therefore, "essential to become aware of the sharp difference between people (and influences) who nourish and encourage it, and those who seek to limit or even destroy it. It is necessary to discern clearly between good and evil as it affects your own identity. Evil is anything which makes you feel guilty about having a self, that seeks to suppress your individuality, or imposes the belief that the meaning of your individuality consists in giving it up to another person or deity or abstract image, such as 'the people' or 'society'. Anything or anyone that denies, explicitly or by implication, the meaning of every person's uniqueness and spiritual potential is evil. On the contrary, everything and everyone that encourages it, reveals it, helps it to grow and evolve towards the Light of greater understanding and awareness is good." (Joan D'Arcy Cooper, Teacher of Ancient Sumerian Yoga, Lay-Reader in the Anglican Church & Ascended Mistress of the Rainbow Programme, 1927-1982 - Corner-Stones of the Spiritual World, 1981, p. 12. Like Culbone - A Spiritual History, 1977; The Ancient Teaching of Yoga and the Spiritual Evolution of Man, 1979; and The Door Within - Some Meditations on Illness, Pain, Ageing, and Death, 1979; this book was printed privately, and currently is only available from the copyright-holders: Culbone Community Trust, Porlock Weir, Somerset. Element Books publish and distribute her Guided Meditation and the Teaching of Jesus: ISBN 0 906540 29 1: 1982, 2nd impression, 1985. A detailed Index to all five books is available non-commercially from Colin James Hamer cooper.htm.)

That is why I unreservedly commend to your attention Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer's Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth - Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer ( Harper & Row,1983), pp. 136-7: "All the Sumerian tales in this collection are connected to a religious foundation.... We need to approach these stories as sacred narratives, spiritual explorations of the place of the gods and the human psyche in the universe. In all the stories there is a focusing on such spiritual concepts as rule, destiny, and the me (the sacred culture of Sumer). Much like the sculpture of the time, the Sumerian stories have a stark, raw, wide-eyed quality, as if the poet were attempting to pierce through conventions into the very essences of life in order to see 'what is,' to understand what it is all made of, how, and why."

These stories, Diane Wolkstein continues, "continue to have a compelling hold on us. When I have told them, the responses from the audience have been striking: 'I felt as I did the first time I stepped into the cathedral at Chartres,' or, 'It was like going behind a mirror.' And in the telling - especially in the moments of repetition such as the second or third time Inanna's story is told in The Huluppu-Tree, or during the seven disrobings in The Descent of Inanna - I, too, have felt the strange opening-up quality of these stories, as if I were falling out of the storyteller-audience framework into a deeper, more eternal soul-place."

Although Wolkstein's accompanying commentaries "have been written in response to the many questions of listener's: 'Who is the Anzu-bird?' 'Why did Inanna go to the underworld?' 'Why did she sentence her husband to death?'," while "trying to take into consideration the Sumerian context for the symbols, both in their literary and cultural aspects," she is, as she readily admits, more often than not, "relying on hunch, speculation, and a storyteller's intuition," because she honestly and sincerely believes that these are matters about which "we unfortunately have very little information."

Like Zecharia Sitchin, I do not share that view. Nevertheless, I agree with Joseph Blenkinsopp that "what should be affirmed at the present juncture is the need for coexistence between different interpretative systems with their quite different but not necessarily incompatible agendas. We need an edict of tolerance to discourage the tendency of new theories to proscribe their predecessors. This might, for example, encourage us to recover the insights of the patristic writers or the great Jewish exegetes of the Middle Ages. It would leave us free to look for the aesthetic aspects of the 'text in itself' without feeling obliged to condemn the quite different project of the historical practitioner." ( The Pentateuch - An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible, Doubleday, New York, 1992, p.28.)

Zecharia Sitchin's Hypothesis


Zecharia Sitchin, it is appropriate to clarify at the outset, is a well-informed commentator, not a historical practitioner. Introducing himself on screen in 1992 [To viewers of Paradox Media Ltd. & Why Not Productions of Switzerland's 1-hour video-film, Are We Alone? (In the Universe), which "is licensed only for non-commercial, private exhibition in homes."] he stated: "I am Zecharia Sitchin. I devoted a life-time to the study of ancient civilizations, ancient languages, their art, their beliefs, and the knowledge that they had, and the question is, when you study, when you look at all that: Is it myth? Is it mythology? Or did it really happen? I believe that it all really happened."

In Genesis Revisited - Is Modern Science Catching Up With Ancient Knowledge? (Avon Books, New York, 1990; Bear & Co., Santa Fe, 1991) he seeks to show that, notwithstanding today's "confrontation between Evolution and Creationism," "the Book of Genesis and its sources reflect the highest levels of scientific knowledge;" in other words, "the conflict is baseless."

Genesis Revisited is a companion volume to The Earth Chronicles series (also available in paperback from Avon Books, and in hardback from Bear & Co.), which comprises six volumes: The 12th Planet (Stein & Day, 1976; Avon Books, 1978; Bear & Co., 1991), The Stairway to Heaven (St. Martin's Press, 1980; Avon Books, 1983; Bear & Co., 1992), The Wars of Gods and Men (Avon Books, 1985; Bear & Co., 1992), The Lost Realms (Avon Books, 1990; Bear & Co., 1990), When Time Began (Avon Books, 1993; Bear & Co., 1994) and The Cosmic Code (Avon Books 1998). Sitchin's second most recent book is Divine Encounters (Avon Books, 1996).

Those of you who take an interest in football are likely to be familiar with three very different ways of referring in human language to any particular match. The media commentator typically provides viewers, listeners or readers with a more or less detailed description of that series of discrete but related incidents which, in her or his opinion, constitute the salient features of the various players' performances, both as individuals and as members of rival teams, and also, so far as seems appropriate in the circumstances, refers to an assortment of contextual data, which is likely to include some mention of the time and place of the game, the prevailing weather conditions, the mood of the spectators and the probable implications of the match for each team's subsequent rise or fall in the league-table, etc. The referee, by contrast, not always with either the commentator's or the spectators' approval, judges that this is 'a goal', or that that ball is 'off-side', or that one particular player's body-movement constitutes 'a foul'. The table of results, finally, simply indicates the number of goals, if any, scored by each team and, on that basis, either reports a draw, or shows which team was 'the winner'.

When in London in October 1994 His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama was invited to specify which particular question he personally would like to put to Jesus Christ, were the latter to grant him an audience, Tenzin Gyatso said he would seek an explanation of the nature of the Christian Bible. If Pope John-Paul II is to be believed: "The Splendour of Truth shines forth in all the works of the Creator and, in a special way, in man, created in the image and likeness of God" (Encyclical Letter, Veritatis Spendor, CTS, London, 1993, p.3), and this latter theological affirmation can be read on the very first page of the Bible (cf. Genesis 1:26).

Epistemologists and metaphysicians are as far away as ever from arriving at agreed conclusions about the meaning of such crucially important terms as 'reality', 'knowledge' and 'objectivity' [Cf. Bernard Lonergan, Insight - A Study of Human Understanding, Longmans, London, 1957, posthumous critical edition: University of Toronto Press, 1992; or, more succinctly, Colin James Hamer, Voice I+N The Darkness, United Writers, 1978, Chapter 5: "The Question of Evidence" - clear.htm]. Unlike the Dalai Lama, I, as a Catholic priest and nuptial theologian, have no difficulty with the concept of 'G-d', but like, I believe, Zecharia Sitchin and, I suspect, in common with most biblical exegetes I today regard it as more likely than otherwise that 'G-d', if the term "G-d" be used in its by now well-established although not always properly understood theological sense, is not the person or persons most obviously mentioned in the book of Genesis as having created man in her, his or their image and likeness...

All seven of Zecharia Sitchin's erudite works as published include the following statement by the historian and researcher, Rosemary Decker: "Several factors make Sitchin's well-referenced works outstandingly different from all others that present this central theme. For one, his linguistic skills, which include not only several modern languages that make it possible for him to consult other scholars' works in their original tongues, but the ancient Sumerian, Egyptian, Hebrew, and other languages of antiquity as well.

The devotion of thirty years to academic search and personal investigation before publishing resulted in unusual thoroughness, perspective, and modifications where need arose. The author's pursuit of the earliest available texts and artifacts also made possible the wealth of photos and line drawings made for his books from tablets, monuments, murals, pottery, seals, etc. Used generously throughout, they provide vital visual evidence," very little of which I am able to share with you on this occasion. "While the author does not pretend to solve all the puzzles that have kept intensive researchers baffled for well over one hundred years, he has provided some new clues."

"Zecharia Sitchin," his publishers' blurb tells us, "was raised in Palestine, where he acquired a profound knowledge of modern and ancient Hebrew, other Semitic and European languages, the Old Testament, and the history and archaeology of the Near East. He attended the London School of Economics and Political Science and graduated from the University of London, majoring in economic history. A leading journalist and editor in Israel for many years, he now lives and writes in New York City.

One of the few scholars able to read and understand Sumerian, Sitchin has based The Earth Chronicles," - note the modesty of that title - "his recent series of books dealing with Earth's and man's histories and prehistories, on the information and texts written down on clay tablets by the ancient civilizations of the Near East. His books have been widely translated, reprinted in paperback editions, converted to braille for the blind, and featured on radio and television programmes." What he has written is a dramatic narrative of truly epic proportions.

As Sitchin himself wrote in New York as recently as January 1994: "In the years since each book [in The Earth Chronicles] was published, new scientific discoveries have provided mounting corroboration of the series' science-based conclusions, unorthodox and incredible though they were. This accumulation of discoveries was reviewed in the companion book, Genesis Revisited, whose subtitle - Is Modern Science Catching Up With Ancient Knowledge? - speaks for itself. I am confident the process of corroboration will continue."

Sitchin believes that about 4,000,000,000 years ago a no-longer existing planet called Tiamat split into Earth, various retrograde comets and the Asteroid Belt, and that the other planets within our Solar System were considerably re-arranged under the invading influence of Nibiru (= Marduk qua planet), which is at least 5 times and perhaps 8 times larger than planet Earth. Subsequently Nibiru remained inside the Solar System as a planet with a 3,600-years' clockwise and elliptical orbit (somehow associated with Viracocha) around the Sun. What is now the Earth's Moon was formerly Kingu, the largest of Tiamat's 11 satellites, but also comprises fragments of at least one of 7 satellites in orbit around Nibiru at that time (probably its so called North Wind).

Sitchin accepts that about 450,000 years ago life on Nibiru was threatened with extinction by atmospheric erosion. Its ruler, Alalu, was deposed by Anu. Alalu escaped by spaceship to Earth, where he discovered gold with which Nibiru's atmosphere could be protected.

445,000 years ago the Anunnaki led by Anu's first-born son, Enki, arrived on Earth from Nibiru and established Eridu, Earth Station 1, in Mesopotamia at the north-west of the Persian Gulf, where he ruled for 28,800 years.

430,000 years ago, when the ice sheets receded and the climate in the Near East improved, Enki's half-sister, Ninharsag, descended to Earth as Chief Medical Officer

Complementary Reference Data:

B.C. -

15,000,000,000 Primordial Energy-Matter relationship resulted from the implosive scission of a potentially infinitely energetic zero-mass of Anergy.

14,999,930,000 Reciprocal bonding between atomic nuclei and orbital electrons and, therefore, the formation of hydrogen and helium became manifestly possible.

5,000,000,000 Sun came into existence about this time.

4,600,000,000 Core of Tiamat and, therefore, of our present Earth probably formed.

4,000,000,000-3,800,000,000 Variety of prolific bacteria and archaeo-bacteria on Earth.

570,000,000 or earlier: Algonkian or Archaeozoic Age. It is, however, as Dr Peter Plichta has also noted, important to remember that all dates relating to historical geology and Darwinian evolution are purely theoretical - for a brief overview of salient and relevant ecological, geological, medical and other scientific arguments see John C. Whitcomb & Henry M. Morris's carefully researched and painstakingly documented The Genesis Flood - The Biblical Record and its Scientifc Implications (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1961, 44th printing, April 2003: ISBN 0-87552-338-2).

435,000,000 or earlier: Cambrian Age.

355,000,000 or earlier: Devonian & Silurian Ages.

250,000,000 or earlier: Permian & Carboniferous Ages.

70,000,000 earliest known primate: Plesiadapsis.

66,000,000 or earlier: Mesozoic Age of the Dinosaurs (Creataceous, Jurassic, Triassic rocks).

35,000,000 Aegyptopithecus, ancestral ape found in the Fayum.

25,000,000 ape-ancestors of man lived on Earth.

20,000,000 Proconsul, possible ancestor of hominids, found in East Africa.

14,000,000 manlike apes (hominids) emerged in East Africa.

3,700,000 Australopithecus found in East Africa.

3,000,000 ape-man (Homo) appeared in East Africa.

2,100,000-1,800,000 first hominid stone toolmaker, Homo habilis, present in Africa.

In 414,200 B.C., gold-extraction from the waters of the Persian Gulf having proved more difficult than had been envisaged, Anu himself came to Earth with his heir apparent, Enki's half-brother, Enlil, who was then placed in command of the Mission. Alalgar was deputed to replace Enki as ruler of Eridu, and ruled for 36,000 years which,it needs to be noticed, are the equivalent of precisely 10 Nibiruan sars, to use the term the Sumerians employed to refer to Nibiru's periodic revolutions around the Sun, which were, quite naturally, biorhythmically important factors in the life-cycles of organisms of Nibiruan origin. Enki was placed in charge of gold-mining in southern Africa. When Anu returned to Nibiru, Alalu's grandson challenged his authority there.

In 413,000 B.C. the Anunnaki moved inland, and established Larsa.

A world-wide interglacial period began some 400,000 years ago. Enki successfully opened sea-routes to southern Africa, where gold-mining then began in earnest. In southern Mesopotamia Sippar was established as Space-Port, Suruppak as a medical centre, Bad-Tibira to smelt and refine metal. Orbiting space-stations crewed by Igigi (otherwise known as Titans) were used to store refined metals from Earth, and to transfer them periodically to spaceships from Nibiru.

In 378,200 B.C. with Igigi support, Alalu's grandson attempted to gain control of Earth, but Enlil's followers won the War of the Olden Ones. Alalgar's rulership at Eridu was replaced by that of Enmenluanna at Bad-Tibira, where he ruled for 43,200 years; Enlil personally took command elsewhere.

In 335,000 B.C. Enmengalanna succeeded Enmenluanna and ruled for 28,800 years. Complementary Reference Data: B.C. - 2,000,000 truly manlike Advanced Australopithecus lived in East Africa. 1,600,000-200,000 Homo erectus lived in East Africa, Europe and the Far East. 500,000-35,000 Archaic modern man, Homo sapiens, present in Africa.

In 306,200 B.C. Enki's son, Dumuzi, assumed the rulership for 36,000 years.

In 298,000 B.C. after a strike by Anunnaki miners, Enki and Ninharsag created first a male, and then both male and female non-reproductive versions of Homo sapiens by implanting into selected Anunnaki females ova previously extracted from ape-women and genetically manipulated by fertilisation with male Anunnaki semen, possibly in combination with blood and, perhaps, copper-irradiated red earth. In other words, Enki and Ninharsag are the Elohim, gods, Nefilim or Anunnaki mentioned as man's first creators in the Book of Genesis, which elsewhere refers to the Anunnaki as men, angels, giants or Anakim - the Ancient Egyptians knew them as Neteru, Watchers or Guardians.

285,000 years ago, despite the then prevailing ice-age conditions, Homo sapiens flourished in western Asia and North Africa.

In 270,200 B.C. Enzipazianna became ruler for the next 28,800 years.

Some 250,000-110,000 years ago the Anunnaki bestowed on Homo sapiens the potential for sexual self-reproduction, but witheld the gift of seeming immortality. This new Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man) soon spread to other continents. Comparisons of the placentas from women of different races and geographical backgrounds indicate they all descend from a single mitochondrial female ancestor who lived in Africa between 300,000 and 180,000 years ago.

Seemingly, Adam (Neanderthal) as distinct from the Adam was born 112,360; Seth 104,560; Enosh (CroMagnon) 98,260; Kenan 29,860; Mahalald 88,660; Jared 84,760; Enoch 75,040; Metushelah 71,140; Lamech 59,920; Noah 49,000 years ago.

That, in its briefest outline, is Zecharia Sitchin's hypothesis regarding what NASA calls Planet X and what for the Sumerians was Nibiru, for the Babylonians Marduk qua planet, the 12th and outermost planet (its orbit seems in the Andes to have been closely linked with the name of Viracocha) of our Solar System, origin of Earth & home of Man's Creator.

Annunaki Influence on Human Development


It would be difficult to exaggerate the importance of the part played by the Anunnaki in the subsequent course of events on planet Earth.

It appears likely that the personage known to the Sumerians as Enki is the same individual as he whom the pre-Celtic Irish knew as Oengus, the Ancient Egyptians called Ptah and Khnemu, and the Classical Greeks revered as Vulcan. She whom the Sumerians called Ninharsag, the Ancient Egyptians called Hathor, and perhaps also Neith. Not surprisingly, since she it was who, under Enki's direction, created Adam (whom the Sumerians knew as Adapa), she is also known as Mami. Among the other names of this same individual are Ninti and Sud.

Both Enki and Ninharsag were Anu's children. Anu was the 22nd at least of a line of actual supreme rulers resident on Nibiru. Anu's great-grand-daughter, Ninni is also known as, i.e., if one accepts Sitchin's to me very attractive hypothesis, the same historical individual as Innin, Inanna, Irnini, Ishtar, Eshdar, Astarte, Ast, Ashtoreth, Venus, Aphrodite, Athena, Isis, Anat, Calypso.

Similarly, Enki's son Marduk is perhaps identical with Ba'al, Ra, Amun, Zeus, Jupiter, Jove and Dyaus-Pitah, and Enki's son Thoth is probably Xiuhtecuhtli, Kukulcan, Quetzalcoatl, Hermes, Mercury, Hephaestus, Kothar-Hasis and Ninghiszada (but Shepesh, "Torch of the gods", is a goddess). The Sumerian Adad or Ishkur was called Ramman by Babylonians & Assyrians, Hadad by West Semites, Teshub by Hittites & Cassites, Rimac on the southern coast of Peru, and Viracocha at Tiahuanaco. Nor are these the only instances Sitchin mentions of one and the same individual having several quite different names. Enmenduranna, for example, the seventh pre-Diluvial holder of kingship mentioned in the Sumerian list, began his 21,600 years' reign at Sippar in 241,400 B.C. but, after completing this period of 6 sars in office, became Sumer's first High Priest and was renamed En-me-dur-an-ki, which literally means "High Priest of the ME's of the Bond Heaven-Earth. He is the same individual as the Enoch mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 5:18-24).

Ubartutu reigned from 219,800 until 201,800 B.C.

With the onset of the Cainozoic Age and a new glacial period in about 200,000 B.C., human life regressed, but the climate improved in about 100,000 B.C., Neanderthal man lived, and was present in Europe, until about 35,000 B.C. and, during this period, the sons of the Anunnaki began to take as wives the daughters of Man. Evidence in the Shanidar Cave in Armenia indicates that the relatively high standards of living there enjoyed in about 100,000 B.C. had fallen into total decline by about 23,000 B.C.

Meanwhile, in Suruppak, under the patronage of Ninharsag, Ubartutu, otherwise known as Lamech, a human ruler of Anunnaki parentage, reigned. Ninharsag's and Enki's faithful servant Ziusudra, the Noah of the Bible, began his reign at Shuruppak in 47,000 B.C.

Since 73,000 B.C., with the onset of a new ice age and perhaps, too, because of inappropriate liaisons between Anunnaki males and female Earthlings, regressive types of Man were roaming the planet so that, even if Lemuria did flourish from about 48,000 B.C. onwards, Enki's sibling-rival, Enlil, the Anunnaki supreme commander on Earth, became angry about the overall situation, and began to plot the death of all Mankind. The replacement of Neanderthal man by the already well-established Cro-Magnon Homo sapiens somewhere between 36,000 and 33,000 B.C. may reflect this difficult situation; Sitchin feels that Cain (whose descendants seem eventually to have settled in Central America) may have been of Neanderthal, but Seth's son Enosh of Cro-Magnon stock.

Instead of having one centre like a circle, an ellipse has two epicentres. The Sun is positioned at one of the epicentres of Nibiru's 3,600-years' elliptical orbital path around it. Consequently, Nibiru is sometimes very far away from the Sun, but at other times, like the rest of the planets, relatively close to it. Remember, too, that while the Earth moves counter-clockwise around the Sun, the planet Nibiru moves clockwise - this, indeed, is why it is called Nibiru, 'the Planet of Crossing', because its path takes it across the path of all the other planets in turn every 3,600 years.

The Anunnaki, 'those who from Heaven to Earth came', are, therefore, best placed to visit us from their own home planet only once every 3,600 years. However, as Sitchin has mentioned, "there is evidence that a space-base existed on Mars in antiquity," and he believes that the Anunnaki, after landing their main space-craft on that planet, used a shuttle-craft for the last and relatively short stage of their journey from Nibiru to Earth. He also believes they may have maintained a permanent base on Mars, and that, once that was established, they may have begun to visit Earth more frequently than once every sar. In any event, long familiarity with interplanetary flight within this Solar System taught the Anunnaki that Nibiru's passing close to Earth was sometimes a benign event, but at other times quite the contrary.

In about 15,000 B.C. Enlil, realising that planet Nibiru's next approach to Earth was likely to trigger an immense tidal wave, made the Anunnaki swear to keep this danger secret from all Mankind, and it was, in fact, when Nibiru was, as a planet belonging to our Solar System, making its 120th flight past Earth round about 11,000 B.C. that its gravitational influence caused the Antarctic ice-sheet to slip into the southern seas, melt and, in short, initiate those events we commemorate as the Deluge or Universal Flood.

The Bible compresses what Sitchin, unlike Whitcomb & Morris, believes to have been the very much longer ante-Diluvial life of Mankind into 1,656 years, since Adam (a Neanderthal born 112,360 years ago) is aged only 130 when he fathers Seth, Seth is 105 when he fathers Enos (a Cro-Magnon born 98,260 years ago), Enos is 90 when he fathers Cainan, Cainan is 70 when he fathers Mahalal-el, Mahalal-el is 65 when he fathers Jared, Jared is 162 when he fathers Enoch, Enoch is 65 when he fathers Methuselah, Methuselah is 187 when he fathers Lamech, Lamech is 182 when he fathers Noah, and Noah is only 600 years only when the Flood begins. Sitchin notes that when these figures are multiplied by 60 (the basis of the original Sumerian system of reckoning, as 10 and 12 are of ours today), they then quite credibly match those in pre-biblical sources which date Enki's first splash-down in the Persian Gulf 432,000 years before the Flood.

Norse and Teutonic myths state that 432,000 slain warriors will, on the Day of Judgment, accompany Odin or Woden on his march out of the gates of Valhalla to do combat against the giants. There are 432,000 syllables in the Rigveda, a Sanskrit collection, said to have been written by the gods, of Indo-European tales about their mighty doings. Hindu tradition allocates a Caturyuga or Great Age of 4,320,000 years to Earth's & Mankind's history, beginning with a Golden Age of 1,728,000 (= 4,320,000 x 4) years, followed by an Age of Knowledge of 1,296,000 (= 4,320,000 x 3) years, then an Age of Sacrifice of 864,000 (= 4,320,000 x 2) years and, finally, our present 432,000-year Age of Discord, the Kaliyuga, which is said to have begun at midnight, 17/18 February, 3,102 B.C. According to this same Hindu tradition, there are 1,000 Caturyugas. i.e., 4,320,000,000 years in each Kalpa or Day of the Lord Brahma. As well as approximately coinciding with present-day scientific estimates of the age of our Solar System, the Day of the Lord Brahma reminds Sitchin of Psalm 90 (verse 4): "A thousand years are to you like a yesterday which has passed, like a watch of the night."

"For someone arriving from Nibiru with its vast orbital 'year' on a fast orbiting planet Earth... whose year is but one part of 3,600 of theirs, time-keeping had to pose a great problem. It is evident from the Sumerian King Lists and other texts dealing with the affairs of the Anunnaki that for a long time - certainly until the Deluge - they retained the sar, the 3,600 Earth-years of Nibiru, as the divine unit of time. But what could they do somehow to create a reasonable relationship, other than 1 : 3,600, between that Divine Time and Earthly Time?

The solution was provided by the phenomenon called precession. Because of its only apparent wobble, the Earth's orbit around the Sun [when viewed relatively to both their positions vis-à-vis the circumambient framework of other stars] is slightly retarded each year; the retardation of precession amounts to 1º in seventy-two years. Devising the division of the ecliptic (the plane of planetary orbits around the Sun) into twelve - [quite arbitarily in a sense, but also quite ingeniously, too, in order] to conform to the twelve-member composition of the Solar System - the Anunnaki invented the twelve houses of the zodiac; that allotted to each zodiac house 30º, in consequence of which the retardation per house added up to 2,160 (= 30 × 72) years, and the complete Precessional Cycle or 'Great Year' to 25,920 (= 12 × 2,160) years.... By relating 2,160 to 3,600 the Anunnaki arrived at the Golden Ratio of 6 : 10 and, more importantly, at the sexagesimal system of mathematics which multiplied 6 by 10 by 6 by 10 and so on and on.... Among the thousands of mathematical tablets discovered in Mesopotamia, many that served as ready-made tables of division begin with the astronomical number 12,960,000 and end with 60.... An enigmatic Great Cycle of 500 Great Years of complete precessional shifts = 12,960,000 (= 500 × 25,920) years.... [These] cycles-within-cycles, interplaying 6 and 12 (the 72 years of a 1º zodiacal shift), 6 and 10 (the ratio of 2,160 and 3,600) and 432,000 and 12,960,000, may reflect small and great cosmic and astronomical cycles - secrets yet to be unveiled, of which Sumerian numbers offer just a glimpse." (When Time Began, pp. 23-5.)

Moreover, precisely because the twelvefold division of the zodiac is an invention, evidence of age-old familiarity with it in countries as far apart as Sumeria and Peru has important implications for whoever wishes seriously to investigate the truth-claims of those who accept either Zecharia Sitchin's fascinating and wonderfully simple hypothesis or Giorgio de Santillana & Hertha von Dechend's aenigmatically challenging complementary alternative, Hamlet's Mill.

Complementary Reference Data:

B.C. -

91,600 Earth's North Pole, previously coincident with Canada's Yukon Territory, moved so that Arctic Circle contained much of Europe and all of Greenland.

50,600 North Pole moved to Hudson Bay area, and North America felt the grip of the Arctic Circle. Lesser Antarctica, like Siberia, Beringia, and Alaska, was ice-free except in the high mountains.

30,000 Willensdorf Venus carved.

23,400 Kingship established in Atlantis.

23,000 Burial of a lady shamanka at Dolni Vestonice.

15,000 Last glaciers in Britain disappeared.

13,000-11,000 The Moon only now, in H. S. Bellamy's opinion, became a satellite of the Earth. Lemuria and Atlantis largely disappeared. The land of which Easter Island is the lone and enigmatic reminder was lost. Peoples living in the now Mediterranean basin were wiped out. Culture and civilization suffered a severe setback all over the Earth, with retrogression to a toolless age in many places. The Great Flood came, therefore, before. in Bellamy's view, not after the re-creation of Man, the historical event which, he suggests, figures in the Bible as a symbol of the Theological Ever-Present Creation of Man Now (question of the nature of myth)....

"There were great civilizations in the world a long time before Atlantis - that is to say, a culture centre in the Atlantic - could have existed, as, for instance, the civilization of Tiahuanaco [Zecharia Sitchin believes the Anunnaki also had gold mines near Tiahuanaco]. The Tiahuanacans probably lived more than 2,000 centuries earlier. If we review the different figures given for the date of the capture of the planet Luna, and hence also for the loss of Atlantis, we get the following picture:

These figures give a likely date between about 11,500 and 12,000 B.C. The biblical Atlantis myth is contained in passages of the Books of Ezekiel, Isaiah, Jeremiah and, especially, the Book of Revelation of John the Apocalyptician. The 'original' myth which can be reconstructed from these passages is practically complete, much more so, indeed, than Plato's."

11,000 Last ice-age abruptly ended by a Deluge. Ziusudra/Noah saved himself in a submersible ship. When the flood waters receded, Enlil consented to grant surviving humans replacement tools and seeds; agriculture began in the highlands. Enki at the same time introduced domesticated animals.

10,860-8,700 Age of Leo.

Continuing Anunnaki Participation after the Flood in Terrestrial & Human Affairs


"This kind of investigation and the attendant speculation that goes with it, no matter how much it is needed, no matter how much the evidence warrants its pursuit, is, nevertheless, filled with problems. Academic and professional geologists, glaciologists, geophysicists, paleontologists, oceanographers, astronomers, astrophysicists, and a host of individuals who are members of related disciplines, do not take kindly to intrusions into their respective bailiwicks. As a rule, they tow the line of conventional interpretation as has been established as acceptable protocol within their field. This is safe. It protects careers. He who dares to contradict accepted dogma, or crosses over momentarily from his own bailiwick into another to make a pertinent observation, is often shunned or ostracized. A good example of this kind of treatment is offered in astronomer-astronaut-philosopher Brian O'Leary's recent work, Inner and Outer Space. O'Leary gives a revealing description of how painful peer pressure can be when an individual, such as himself, diverges from what is considered proper research and acceptable inquiry.

Scientists as a rule, having narrowly defined scientific methodology so that it excludes much phenomenology, seek refuge in that very methodology. As a group, they appear to be uninterested in expanding in any ways its parameters. Each discipline has become highly specialized, as we all know. Glaciologists do not keep up much with astrophysics. Geologists are not much interested in astronomy. And so down the line. The right hand does not know what the left hand is doing. Or what it may have found. Comparative science, much like comparative literature, hardly exists. This is especially true in the United States....

Not only are the separate scientific disciplines often unaware of developments in other scientific fields, but the members of such disciplines would consider it scientific blasphemy - and there definitely is such a thing - to mention such a phenomenon as prophecy or the evidence of ancient literature in the same breath with data from their own field, which may or may not, for that matter, be accurate." (G. Cope Schellhorn, When Men Are Gods, Horus House Press, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, 1991, pp. 168-9.)

"Brian O'Leary... after observing the failure of our human attempts to understand the total reality about us, both our inner and outer space together, with conventional scientific approaches, has lately observed, 'I wonder if all of astronomy, astrophysics, and related science is not a protective decoy to keep us out of the real universe until we are ready.' The quester after truth will discover, finally, that the inward journey can be done anywhere by anyone, with eyes open or closed, in a parking lot or in the midst of the desert, as long as the quester is so willing." ( Ibid., p.37. )

Thanks to Enki's provident intervention, his half-brother and arch-rival, Enlil's plan to permit the waters of the Great Flood entirely to wipe out all human life on Earth was effectively thwarted. Noah and his companions survived that near-disaster. Enlil relented. In about 10,500 B.C. three regions of Earth were allotted to Noah's descendants by their Anunnaki overlords: Enlil's foremost son, Ninurta, made Mesopotamia again habitable by damning the mountains and draining the rivers; Enki reclaimed the Nile valley; Inanna was assigned the Indus Valley. A fourth region, the Sinai peninsula became the Anunnaki's post-Diluvial Space-Port, and a new Mission Control Centre was established on Mount Moriah, site of the city we still call Jerusalem.

In 9,780 B.C. Enki's firstborn son, Ra, otherwise known as Marduk, divided dominion over Egypt between Osiris and Seth but, in 9,330 B.C. Seth dismembered Osiris, and assumed sole control of the Nile Valley. In 8,970 B.C. Osiris's son, Horus, avenged his father by launching the First Pyramid War, but Seth escaped to Asia, seizing the Sinai peninsula and Canaan.

This act of Seth's contravened a previous division of Earth government dating back to about 414,200 B.C., according to which Enlil was in charge of operations of all human and divine operations North of latitude 30o N., Enki directly or indirectly presided over all activities South of latitude 30º S., and humans were, save in very exceptional cases, completely excluded from Earth's remaining central zone where, in the neighbourhood of the space facilities, Anu's will was, at least in theory, law, while elsewhere, in practice, the Anunnaki acted only on the basis of some mutually agreed consensus.

Tensions between Enki and Enlil had always threatened the stability of this consensus, which was also undermined from time to time by various projects Inanna undertook in order to advance her own cause. On this occasion, unsurprisingly, the Enlilites were at one in their opposition to any control of the space facilities in the supposedly neutral Sinai peninsula by any of Enki's descendants. In 8,670 B.C. they launched, and won the Second Pyramid War. Ninurta emptied the Great Pyramid of all its technical equipment. Enki's and Enlil's half-sister, Ninharsag, otherwise known as Hathor, convened a peace conference, which reaffirmed the division of Earth into Four Regions or zones of influence (Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, the Indus Valley, & Sinai), and transferred rulership over Egypt from Ra and his supporters to those of Thoth. Partly to replace the Pyramids, Heliopolis was subsequently established as a new Beacon City.

Shortly afterwards, in 8,500 B.C., the Anunnaki also established Jericho, which means 'Moon City', and several other outposts at the gateway to their space facilities, to ensure that humans (who had just been for the first time actively involved as combatants in warfare between 'the gods', as we misleadingly are accustomed to call the Anunnaki, Nefilim, Elohim, Anakim, giants, 'men', Angels, Neteru, Guardians or Watchers, i.e., the astronaut-superintendants of human development on this planet) were kept from entering Sinai's exclusion zone.

In 7,400 B.C. peace still prevailed and the Anunnaki granted new advances to Mankind. In Egypt, for instance, rulership was entrusted to the so called 'demi-gods', persons of mixed Anunnaki-human parentage. Mixed marriages of this sort appear no longer to have been prohibited after the Flood, but can never have been too frequent - although Homo sapiens sapiens shares what is essentially the same DNA-structure with the Anunnaki, the evolution of the latter is at least 2,000,000 years ahead of ours, which suggests the likelihood of such relationships proving dangerously unstable at times.

Unstability is especially characteristic at times when Mankind is entering upon a New Zodiacal Age as, for example, we today are living through the transition from Pisces to Aquarius. For various reasons which I need not here enter into, it is never easy precisely to determine when one Zodiacal Age ends and a New Age begins.

Complementary Reference Data:

B.C. -

9,000 Creation of spiritual sanctuaries or temples in the invisible etheric membrane around the Earth, after the fall of Atlantis, e.g., over the Culbone valley on the Somerset coast.

8,700-6,550 Age of Cancer.

6,550-4,380 Age of Gemini.

5,000-3,100 Predynastic Ancient Egypt.

4,000: First establishment in Britain of some form of Sumerian-derived civilization, probably with a mining interest from the outset.

3,113-2,718: Mayan Baktun of the Star Planting according to Jose Arguelles.

3,102 (17/18 February): Inception of Kaliyuga!

3,100-2,890: After 350 years of chaos, first Ancient Egyptian Dynasty inaugurated the Archaic Period at Memphis. Thoth reformed the Ancient Egyptian calendar c. 3100, when there was already a well-established social structure, a systematic expression of myth, a regulated cult, a complete writing, and an official census.

Perhaps the Age of Taurus began in 4,380 and lasted until 2,200 B.C.? In Egypt, at any rate, together with his female companion, Sesheta, Thoth, who was also later known as Mercury, authoritatively determined that 4,240 B.C. was year 1 of the New Age. Indeed, if he is still very widely honoured and revered as Hermes Trismegistus, this, most probably, is precisely on account of his success in thrice teaching humans how to settle upon some similarly agreed plausible date for this unavoidable and generally unsettling transition to a fresh Age: first, from Gemini to Taurus (with, as just mentioned, the inauguration of the Pharaonic Calendar in Ancient Egypt in 4,240 B.C.); second, from Taurus to Aries (with the building of the Intihuatana at Machu Picchu in Peru at some time between 2,300 and 2,100 B.C.) ; third, from Aries to Pisces (round about the time of the birth of Jesus Christ).

All known languages except prediluvial Sanskrit (cf. Kurt Schildmann, Als das Raumschiff "Athena" die Erde kippte - Indus-, Burrows-Cave- und Glozel-Texte entziffert, ISBN 3-933817-15-3, 1st edition: September 1999) can be traced back to Sumerian. Many Chinese pictograms, for instance, not only have the same overall visual impact as the Ancient Sumerian glyphs from which they derive; each Chinese character also shares with the corresponding Sumerian original an identical range or family of clearly kindred meanings. Thus, what is special about the Jews, God's Chosen People, appears to be not merely that they are of Sumerian stock, but that in common with the Arabs they can, through Abraham, legitimately claim descent from citizens of Sumer's capital city, Nippur, where Abraham's father was an Oracle Priest or, as we might say today, the Astronomer Royal. (In addition to Sitchin's works and the sources there quoted, cf.: John Sassoon, From Sumer to Jerusalem - The Forbidden Hypothesis, Intellect Books, Oxford, 1993.)

"Even in its condensed version of the much more detailed Mesopotamian texts, the Bible (Genesis 1:14) expressed the triple relationship between Earth, Moon, and Sun as it applied to the cycles of day, month, year: 'And the Lord said: Let there be luminaries in the hammered-out Heaven to distinguish between the day and the night; and let them be signs for months and for days and for years.'

The Hebrew term Mo'edim used here to denote 'months,' which signifies the ritual assembly called for on the evening of the New Moon, establishes the Moon's orbital period and phases as an integral component of the Mesopotamian-Hebrew calendar from its very inception." (When Time Began, p.17.)

"For mankind, Earthly Time began in 3,760 B.C.; we know the exact date because, in the year 2000 of the Common Era, the Jewish calendar counts the year 5,760." (Ibid., p.23, updated.) This Nippurian calendar "required from the very beginning of Sumerian civilization a precise knowledge of the motions of the Earth and the Moon, and their correlation with the Sun." (O.c, p.20.) "The Babylonian New Year rituals evolved from the Sumerian AKITI ('On Earth Build Life') festival whose roots can be traced to the state visit by Anu and his spouse Antu to Earth... when (as the texts attest) the zodiac was ruled by the Bull of Heaven, the Age of Taurus.... It was then that Counted Time, the calendar of Nippur, was granted to Mankind. Inevitably, that entailed celestial observations and thus led to the creation of a class of trained astronomer-priests." (Ibid., p.110.)

The necessary foundations for this important development had, indeed, originally been prepared prior to the Flood:

"Of the pivotal event, the teaching of the heavenly secrets to Enmeduranki [Enoch], we read in a little-known tablet that was fortunately brought to light by W. G. Lambert in his study Enmeduranki and Related Material that 'Enmeduranki was a prince in Sippar, beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea [Enki]. Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him as priest. Shamash and Adad took him to the assembly of the gods.... They showed him how to observe oil on water, a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea. They gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibbu secret of Heaven and Earth.... They taught him how to make calculations with numbers." (Ibid., pp. 132-3.)

What A. Jeremias was able to write and publish in 1911 is still, I feel, worthy of quotation here:

"Ancient-Babylonian pictures of animals ruled over by the Sun, Moon, and Venus - the Regents of the zodiac - seem to show that the diagram of the stars of this planet course was represented in pictures in prehistoric ages.

'Sunt aries taurus gemini cancer leo virgo
libraque scorpius arcitenens caper amphora pisces.

These are the twelve stages of the Sun, which correspond to the twelve revolutions of the Moon. They are considered as 'houses' or 'thrones' of the Supreme Power.... Each stage is again divided into three, so there are thirty-six divisions formed (decani). Another division corresponds to the course of the Moon; the twenty-seven or twenty-eight lunar stages serve for observation of the stars surrounding the Pole Star when they cross the meridian.

The Lunar stages offer startling evidence of the eastward movement of the Babylonian doctrine. Whitney has shown in his work Lunar Zodiac that the twenty-eight houses of the Moon of the Arabs, accepted in the Koran,... the twenty-seven or twenty-eight of Vedic India,... and the twenty-eight lunar stages of the Chinese,... though modified by different characteristics, are yet all three traceable to a common origin.... Richthofen... says: 'Here we face one of the most remarkable problems of prehistoric ages, namely, the intercourse of nations'." (The Old Testament in the Light of the Ancient East, pp. 12-13.)

Zecharia Sitchin's seven volumes cannot, of course, enter into very much detail as regards this important topic, and considerations of both time and space counsel even greater brevity here. To recall a few dates only: Britain became an island in about 5,000 B.C., and the process of impregnating every particle of the geology of the Culbone valley on the North-Somerset coast with the substantial vibration of Peace was, according to Joan D'Arcy Cooper, successfully completed. Thoth initiated Ancient-Egyptian use of the Pharaonic Calendar in 4,240 B.C., the Kalassasaya-Calendar gateway at Tiahuanaco in Bolivia was inaugurated in 4,050 B.C., Adam's creation by God (if I may remind you of the date confidently assigned to this event by John Lightfoot, 1602-1675) is still believed by some to have occurred at 9 a.m. on 23 October in 4,004 B.C., Susa was founded in 4,000 B.C., Glastonbury emerged as Europe's earliest power-centre in about 3,800 B.C., as urban civilization was being revived in Sumer, where the Anunnaki re-established the Olden Cities of Eridu and Nippur, and a new temple-city, Uruk/Erech, to honour the state-visit to Earth in 3,760 B.C.* of Anu, whose beloved great-grand-daughter Inanna/Ishtar made it her official residence. That same year, the present Jewish Calendar came into use at Sumeria's (later Akkadia's) religious centre, Nippur, and kingship was granted to Mankind, with Kish as a first capital under the aegis of Ninurta. (Malta's Mnajdra prehistoric temple, also a calendar in stone, may have been inaugurated in 3,710 - if not in 10,205 - B.C.)


* Or circa 3,560 B.C.?

The date 3,760 agrees with today's Jewish Calendar in which 2000 A.D. = 5,760, but Sitchin, who has never claimed that planet Nibiru last passed closest to Earth in 200 B.C., noted in The Wars of Gods and Men (p.245) that, although Thorkild Jacobsen assigned the transfer of kingship in Sumer from Erech to Ur to circa 2,850 B.C., others adopt the lower date of circa 2,650 B.C., and then very significantly added: "Such a discrepancy of two centuries has persisted into later times and remains unexplained by scholars." It now appears likely that David M. Rohl's A Test of Time - Volume 1: From Myth to History; Volume II:Legend - The Genesis of Civilisation; Volume III: The Lost Testament - From Eden to Exile: The Five-Thousand-Year History of the People of the Bible (London: Century 1995, 1998, 2002) offers a convincing and extremely relevant explanation (sadly, however, the author's views about dates, persons and events prior to the time of Abraham are premature and far less credible). Ralph Ellis's related books Jesus - Last of the Pharaohs, 2nd edition; Thoth - Architect of The Universe, 3rd edition; ; K2 - Quest of the Gods; Solomon - Falcon of Sheba (Edfu Books, 1999; 2000; 2001; 2002) are at least equally provocative. Sir Laurence Gardner's Bloodline of the Holy Grail - The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed (Element Books, 1996), Genesis of the Grail Kings - The Pendragon Legacy of Adam and Eve (Bantam-Transworld, 1999) and Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark (Element Books, 2003) are importantly different - and even more relevant, of course, remains Isaiah (43:18-19): "No need to remember past events, no need to think about what was done before. Look, I am doing something new, now it emerges; can you not see it?"


In 3,450 B.C. the Sumerian primacy was transferred to Nannar/Sin. Marduk/Ra thereupon proclaimed Babylon as the new Gateway of the gods, but other Anunnaki toppled this Tower of Babel and confused Mankind's languages. There was chaos in Egypt, too. Marduk/Ra, his ambitions again thwarted, returned, deposed Thoth, and seized the latter's younger brother, Dumuzi, who was also betrothed to Inanna. When Dumuzi was killed accidentally, Marduk was imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid, but later escaped via an emergency shaft, and went into exile as Amun. Marduk/Ra expelled Thoth from Egypt in 3,113 B.C., the starting-point of the Mesoamerican Long Count of the Great Mayan Calendar-Cycle of 5,200 years, which it seems likely that Thoth himself introduced, since 52 is a number of Thoth. The Marduk-Thoth rivalry, in which Inanna's changing attitudes played a very considerable, frequently disturbing, but yet also undeniably highly effective mediating and balancing role, exacerbated the problems caused for human development by the ancient rivalry between Enki and Enlil, in which this same 'goddess' was similarly involved. Indeed, which of us can rely on insight alone to discern the moment of Truth?

"There were two lines of priesthood - one Enlilite and one Enki'ite; and two central scientific academies, one in Enlil's Nippur and the other in Enki's Eridu. Both competing and cooperating, no doubt, as the two half brothers themselves were.... 'Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured the Earth, that it be known? Who hath stretched a cord upon it?' So was Job asked when called upon to admit that God, not Man, was the ultimate Keeper of the Secrets." But which god? - it seems pertinent to ask. "In the scene of the introduction of the king-priest to Shamash, the purpose or essence of the occurrence is indicated by two Divine Cordholders [my italics]. The two cords they stretch to a ray-emitting planet form an angle, suggesting measurement not so much of distance as of orientation.... The stretching of cords to determine the proper astronomic orientation of a temple was the task of a goddess called Sesheta in Egypt. She was on the one hand a Goddess of the Calendar; her epithets were 'the great one, lady of letters, mistress of the House of Books' and her symbol was the stylus made of a palm branch, which in Egyptian hieroglyphs stood for 'counting the years.' She was depicted with a seven-rayed star within the Heavenly Bow on her head. She was the Goddess of Construction...." (When Time Began, pp. 135-6.)

Construction commonly implies destruction too, of course, and 3,102 B.C. has already been mentioned as the first year of our current Kaliyuga. Phase 1 of Stonehenge, including the 56 Aubrey holes, which date from 3,100-2,300, and very probably from about 2,800 B.C., may also be the work of Thoth. In 2,900 B.C. kingship in Sumer was transferred to Erech. About this time Inanna was granted dominion over the Third Region of Earth, and civilization began in the Indus Valley. The foundations for the Eninnu in Lagash were laid in 2,850 B.C.

Complementary Reference Data:

B.C. -

2,890-2,686 2nd Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

2,718-2,324 Mayan Baktun called by J. Arguelles "of the Pyramid".

2,686-2,613 Third Ancient Egyptian Dynasty inaugurated the Old Kingdom.

2,613-2,494 Fourth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

2,494-2,345 Fifth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty. 2,371: Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin/Sargon who, with her help, founds Agade/Akkad and establishes the Akkadian empire.

2,345-2,181: Sixth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty. 2,324-1,930: Mayan Baktun of the Wheel.

2,181-2,173 Seventh (Memphite) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty inaugurated the First Intermediate Period. Egypt divided. Ra/Marduk's followers control the South, but Pharaohs opposed to him rule over Lower Egypt.

2,173-2,160 Eighth (Memphite) Dynasty.

2,160-2,130 Ninth (Heracleopolitan) Dynasty.

2,150-2,000 Erection of Stonehenge - Phase 2.

2,130-2,040 Tenth (Heracleopolitan) Dynasty.

2,133-1,991 Eleventh (Theban) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

2,100 Gudea built the Girsu at Lagash.

2,100-,2,000: Erection of Stonehenge - Phase 3a.

2,000 Beginning of polytheism under Marduk in Babylon. Sumerian civilization in Britain began to wane.

2,000-1,550 Erection of Stonehenge - Phase 3b.

1,991-1,786 Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom - Twelfth Dynasty.

1,930-1,536 Baktun of the Sacred Mountain.

1,786-1,633 Thirteenth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty inaugurated the Second Intermediate Period.

1,786-1,603 Fourteenth (Xois) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

1,674-1,567 Fifteenth (Hyksos) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

1,684-1,567 Sixteenth (Hyksos) Dynasty.

1,650-1,567 Seventeenth (Theban) Dynasty.

1,567-1,320 Eighteenth Dynasty inaugurated Ancient Egypt's New Kingdom.

1,550-1,100 Erection of Stonehenge - Phase 3c.

1,536-1,141 Baktun of the House of Shang.

1,350-1,240 Culbone occupied by an agricultural community, with houses of wood, wattle and daub. 1,320-1,200: Nineteenth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty. 1,240-140: Cave-dwellers only, in Culbone valley.

1,200-1085 Twentieth Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

1,141-747 Baktun of the Imperial Seal.

As kingship in Sumer deteriorated in quality, the royal capital shifted about. In 2,650 B.C. Enlil was losing patience with the unruly human multitudes. Followers of Thoth/Questalcoatl arrived in Mexico by ship in 2,613-2,494 B.C. In 2,316 B.C. when Inanna's protege, Sargon, ambitiously wishing to rule all Four Regions of Earth, removed some sacred soil from Babylon, Marduk confronted Inanna in Mesopotamia, but returned to Egypt when so persuaded by his brother, Nergal, who had made a special journey from southern Africa to Babylon to defuse the conflict. The Intihuatana at Machu Picchu was built in 2,300-2,100 B.C.

Marduk had left Babylon in 2,295 B.C. In 2,291 Naram-Sin ascended the throne of Akkad and, directed by the warlike Inanna, penetrated the Sinai peninsula and invaded Egypt. In 2,255 Inanna usurped power in Mesopotamia, and Naram-Sin defiled Nippur. The Great Anunnaki then obliterated Agade and, though Inanna herself escaped, both Sumer and Akkad were occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta. Meanwhile, in the Culbone valley in 2,250 B.C. one teacher and six pupils from Dorset or Wiltshire made a home, where they were consequently visited by others in search of Knowledge.

Thanks to the presence of enlightened rulers in Lagash during the period 2,200-2,100 B.C., Sumerian civilization achieved new heights, and Thoth assisted king Gudea of Lagash to complete the Eninnu, a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta, in about 2,160 B.C., when he brought over for this purpose a sangu simug, a 'priestly smith', from Tiahuanacu in the Andes.

"The remains at Puma Punku hold another enigmatic clue to the amazing link between the structures at Lake Titicaca and the unusual temple to Ninurta that Gudea built. To the disbelief of the site's excavators, they found that the megalithic builders had used bronze clamps, formed to fit T-shaped cutouts in adjoining stones, to hold together - at least ritually and symbolically - the huge stone blocks. Such a clamping method, and such a use of bronze, were unique to the Megalithic Age, having been found only at Puma Punku and at another site of cyclopean megaliths, Ollantaytambu, some forty-five miles northwest of Cuzco in the Sacred Valley.

Yet thousands of miles away, on the other side of the world, at Lagash in Sumer, Gudea used the very same unique method and the very same unique bronze clamps to hold together the stones that, imported from afar, were used in the construction of the Eninnu. Recording in his inscriptions the unusual use of stones and of metals, this is how Gudea lauded his own achievements: 'He built the Eninnu with stone, he made it bright with jewels; with copper mixed with tin [bronze] he held it fast'." (Ibid., pp.253-4.)

Abraham's father, Terah, was born in Nippur in 2,193 B.C. It was a time of unrest. 2,183-2,173 B.C. are accepted dates for the Seventh (Memphite) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty which inaugurated the so called First Intermediate Period. Egypt was divided. Ra/Marduk's followers controlled Upper Egypt in the South, but Pharaohs opposed to him ruled over Lower Egypt to the North. In Wessex: "for all intents and purposes, the Stonehenge we see was planned in 2,100 B.C., executed during the following century, and given its final touches circa 1,900 B.C." (O.c., p.42.) As in Machu Picchu at about the same time, the influence of Thoth seems likely. According to surviving then contemporary accounts of the various disputed claims, 2,142 B.C. was the most widely accepted date for the start of the Age of Aries. In other words, quite definitely a time for change.

Central authority had weakened in Mesopotamia, where Enlil and Ninurta were frequently absent, by 2,130 B.C., but Inanna's attempt to restore kingly power in Erech aborted. In 2,123 B.C. Abraham was born in Sumer's sacred capital city, Nippur ('Hebrew' = 'Nippurian'); he later became commandant of an elite force of fighting-men on fast camels.

The Bible locates the death of Terah and God's covenant with his son, Abraham, only 427 years after the end, as distinct from the beginning of the Great Flood, since Shem fathers Arphaxad 2 years after the Deluge, Arphaxad is 35 when he fathers Salah, Salah is 30 when he fathers Eber, Eber is 34 when he fathers Peleg, Peleg is 30 when he fathers Reu, Reu is 32 when he fathers Serug, Serus is 30 when he fathers Nahor, Nahor is 29 when he fathers Terah, and Terah is 205 when he dies. This dating-system reflects a once prevailing confusion between the beginning of history in the sense of the earliest human events, and the beginning of historical records in the sense of those assigned specific dates in some then officially acknowledged chronology, which was, of course, one adapted to match the requirements of one particular socio-political establishment.

Similar considerations, incidentally, stand behind Marduk's many alterations to the received text of Sumerian accounts of the origin of Earth and the creation of Mankind, etc. When these accounts were translated into Babylonian, Marduk's own name was often substituted for that of whichever Anunnaki leader had originally been involved in this or that decisively important incident, in an attempt, fortunately not ultimately successful, to subordinate the entire planet to his dominion. Prior to Marduk's rise to pre-eminence in Babylon, although, by and large, cooperation prevailed among gods and goddesses alike, the overall policy was that of allocating to each of the Anunnaki a clear and distinct function and sphere of influence, so that any particular group of human beings typically needed to take orders only from one great god or goddess. Marduk's influence changed all that. Partly, no doubt, because of some particular features of his own individual character and temperament, probably, too, also on account of some personal grudge he harboured against what he felt was Inanna's interference in his life, Marduk/Ra/Amon marginalised goddesses and women, emphasised the importance of routines and logically clear command structures by, for instance, systematising astrology in ways that eventually diminished it into what the Bible condemns as superstition and, in a word, introduced Mankind to polytheism, gender-conflicts and the various consequent dilemmas that still confront us today.

In 2,113 B.C. Enlil entrusted the Lands of Shem to Nannar, and Ur was declared capital of the new empire. Ur-Nammu became King of Ur and Protector of Nippur, of which Nannar was the appointed trustee. Abraham's father, the Nippurian Oracle-Priest, Terah, came to Ur to liaise with the royal court. When Ur-Nammu died in battle in 2,096 B.C., people felt Anu and Enlil had betrayed them. Terah and his family left Ur, and moved to Harran.

Although Shulgi became King of Ur and strengthened the empire in 2,095 B.C., he succumbed to the charms of Inanna, when she selected him as her new lover. Shulgi granted Larsa to the Elamites, who agreed to act as his Foreign Legionaries.

When, in 2,080 B.C., Theban princes under Mentuhotep I and loyal to Ra/Marduk advanced northward, Marduk's son, Nabu, gathered supporters for his father in western Asia.

In 2,055 B.C. Shulgi, after receiving oracles from Nannar, despatched Elamite troops to Canaan to suppress the unrest there. These reached the gateway to the Sinai peninsula and its crucially important Space-Port. In 2,048 B.C., therefore, Anu and Enlil ordered the death of Shulgi and, when Marduk moved to the Land of the Hittites, Abraham moved from Harran to southern Canaan with his elite corps of camel-mounted fighting-men.

In 2,047 B.C. Amar-Sin ascended the throne of Ur. Abraham and his fighting-men left the Negev for Egypt. When, in 2,042 B.C., the Canaanite kings switched their allegiance, as the Bible puts it, to "other gods", i.e., to Marduk/Ra/Amun and his son, Nabu, Abraham and his enlarged fighting-force returned from Egypt. Then, in 2,041, Amar-Sin (whom the Bible calls Amar-Pal), guided by Inanna, launched the War of the Kings under the leadership of Khedor-la'omer the Elamite, principally against Abraham, Yahweh's chosen defender of Sinai and its Space-Port, whom he failed to defeat.

However, in 2,040 B.C. Mentuhotep II, leader of the Theban princes, defeated the Pharaoh of Lower Egypt and extended the rule of Thebes and, therefore, that of Marduk/Ra/Amun to the western approaches to the exclusion zone in the Sinai Peninsula.

As the empire crumbled, Shu-Sin in 2,038 B.C. replaced Amar-Sin on the throne of Ur. In February 2,031 what was very widely regarded as a highly significant lunar eclipse was visible in Sumer. By 2,029 B.C. Ibbi-Sin had replaced Shu-Sin on the throne of Ur, and the western provinces were declaring themselves increasingly in favour of Marduk. The Anunnaki leadership felt that desperate measures were now called for.

In 2,024 B.C., in the sixth year of the reign of Ibbi-Sin, last king of Ur, at Enlil's behest, and despite Enki's easily predictable opposition, the post-Deluge Space-Port and its underground silo in the Sinai Peninsula were destroyed, so as to prevent their falling into the hands of Marduk, who had marched on Sumer and enthroned himself in Babylon. Ninurta and Enki's son, Nergal, by using nuclear weapons in this way (and this fact can be confirmed by reference to, among other things, some recent NASA photographs of the area as viewed from space), made the Giza Pyramids thenceforth redundant as Landing Beacons, and Jerusalem lost its usefulness as the related Mission Control Centre for the flight path from over Mount Ararat. Sodom and Gomorrah (now below the new southern portion of the Dead Sea) were similarly destroyed; Lot's wife was vapourised. In 2,023 B.C. wind-born radioactive clouds over Sumer brought death to men and animals, poisoned the waters, and made the land barren, but Abraham's wife and half-sister, Sarah, bore him a son, Isaac. Isaac's son, Jacob, was born in 1,963 B.C., so that he was just about 15 years old when Abraham died in 1,948.

Since 2,000 B.C., then, Sumerian civilization was on the wane in Britain, and in Babylon polytheism was on the increase. In 1,863 Jacob's son, Joseph, was sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, where Joseph would make both his father and his brothers honoured and welcome guests thirty years later. However, with the Thirteenth Dynasty, 1,786-1,633 B.C., Ancient Egypt fell once more into turmoil - the Second Intermediate Period. Order was not restored until 1,567-1,320 B.C., when the Eighteenth Dynasty successfully inaugurated the New Kingdom. Stonehenge Phase 3c (1,550-1,100 B.C.) is, it is well to notice, broadly contemporary with this happy restoration. According to tradition, it was in 1,800 B.C., or thereabouts, that Hu Gadarn the Mighty, a near-contemporary of Abraham and Melchisedech, led a contingent of Hebrews to somewhere in Britain, a place-name which appears to derive from Berit, the Hebrew word for 'Covenant' or 'Testament'. It is claimed that this authentically Patriarchal Faith endured as a deeply vital impulse in the later Druidism of the Celts, and Joan D'Arcy Cooper affirms that in 1,515 B.C. the Culbone valley, which had then been deserted for about 130 years, began for about thirty years to be occupied by a hermit-teacher who lived alone, but who occasionally received visitors in search of Knowledge. The neighbouring row of prehistoric stones which only came to light in about 1,982 A.D., the year of Joan Cooper's death, may, like the famous Culbone Stone itself, date back to this period in our history.

As is rather more widely known, Moses was born in 1,513 B.C. He was brought up by Hatshepsut, eldest daughter of Thothmes I by his official spouse, and sonless wife of his successor Thothmes II. Moses is sometimes credited with the introduction of the 7-day week. As for the woman Pharaoh Hatshepsut, she had devoutly and selflessly acknowledged: "I am God, the Beginning of All Existence," but Thothmes III, who succeeded her in 1,474 B.C., treated Jews (and others) harshly; he died in 1,450.

In 1,443 B.C. the Israelite Exodus from Egypt was permitted by the new Pharaoh Amenophis II. Exodus (12:49-53) and Galatians (3:17) situate this Exodus, which was to last 40 years, 430 years after both Joseph's first arrival in Egypt and God's at least seemingly somewhat earlier covenant with Abraham! Telling the time can certainly occasionally have its problems; in 1,394 B.C. the Sun stood still for Joshua, while in Peru the night-time was unnaturally prolonged. Determining the location of real events in ancient times can also present difficulties - Plato's "The Pillars of Hercules", for instance, may have stood not near Gibraltar but at what is now Carnac in Brittany, and Sens in central France was probably once the capital of Atlantis.

Like Iman Wilkens, the author of Where Troy Once Stood (Rider, London, 1990), I also still at present believe that Homer, who lived about 1,200 B.C., and whose Odyssey includes coded instructions for the successful crossing of the Atlantic from Britain to America, was a Celt who was born and died within a stone's throw from where Middelburg town-hall in Holland stands today. He subsequently visited South East England, where he was an eye-witness to the Trojan war, which was fought at Wandlebury Ring on the Gog Magog hills near Cambridge, ostensibly to liberate Helen, but fundamentally to establish which groupings of Celtic tribes and their allies would control the English Channel, exercise naval supremacy, and enjoy priority of access to the tin-mines of Cornwall.

During the Bronze Age, "when tin was found virtually only in [South America and] England, gold [mainly in South America, southern Africa and] in Ireland (then called Syria) and amber in the Baltic, it was [frequently most convenient and sometimes] necessary to go to Cornwall for tin and then alloy it with the copper that the Mediterranean people had in Cyprus, the Gauls in France and the Scandinavians in the centre of Sweden. There was thus fierce competition from all sides on the sea-routes leading to Cornwall. Phoenicians, Etruscans, Scandinavians and others all met in the ports of Europe where, as Homer expressed it, 'all tongues are spoken'." (Loc. cit.)

Zecharia Sitchin's biblically inspired writings reveal no awareness of this situation. Confusion has resulted from the fact that a number of countries in the eastern Mediterranean changed names in the Bronze Age or shortly thereafter to be thenceforward called Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Lybia, Crete, Lesbos (previously the name for today's Isle of Wight) and Cyprus, due to conquests made by peoples from the Atlantic seaboard, just as the descendants of these Sea Peoples later gave new names during the colonial era, only a few centuries ago, to a number of countries all around the world as distant as New Zealand.

In Homer's day, as mentioned, Ireland was known as Syria; Octeville near Cherbourg was Athens, Dieppe was Thebes, Paris was Helice, the Seine was the river Nile, the Vosges region was Arcadia, the Isle of Wight was Lesbos, Troyes was Mycenae, Mont Blanc was Olympus, the Pyrenees were Pieria, Scandinavia in general and especially S.W. Norway was Crete, Antwerp was Antron, Cadiz was Ithaca, Salamanca was Salamis, the Atlantic was the Ocean or Great River, Chichester harbour was Hermus, the Thames was the Temese, Ely was Ilium, Ardrossan was Adrasteia, Arbroath was Arisbe, Carbis Bay was Charybdis, St. Michael's Mount was Scylla, Exeter, which Homer himself visited, was Amydon, and the river Exe, then, as it still remained 1,000 years later, renowned for the excellent quality of its salmon, was "the wide-flowing Axius - Axius whose waters flow the fairest over the face of the Earth." (Iliad, Bk.2, 849-50.)

Many things changed after the Trojan War. In 1,100 B.C. the approach Avenue at Stonehenge was extended. 1,085 B.C. saw the beginning of Ancient Egypt's chaotic Third Intermediate Period. In 1,000 B.C. or shortly thereafter the Etruscans landed on the Tuscan shores and built various towns in Italy.

From 978-938 Solomon was king over Israel. He went after Ashtoreth (Easter), the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites, and did evil in the sight of the Lord, building a High Place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, on the Hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon. The tin that garnished Solomon's temples was probably mined and smelted into ingots in Cornwall, then shipped by the Phoenicians to Palestine.

From 977-443 Greek colonies were established in Sicily and southern Italy, in the wake of those which had been only shortly before established in what is now Greece proper. Israel and Judah were divided 925-722. The beginning of Assyrian chronological records goes back to 893 B.C. When (874-857) Ahab son of Omri did evil above all that were before him, marrying Jezebel, worshipping the Sun-god Baal, and making a grove, G-d, the Bible informs us, sent fire from heaven, and the prophet Elijah destroyed the prophets of Baal.

Carthage was founded in 850 B.C., Romulus founded Rome in 753, and shortly afterwards (735-670) the ten tribes of Israel were carried captive into Assyria. The Druidic religion of W. Europe and the British Isles resembled, and seems, indeed, to have originated from this allegedly idolatrous yew-tree-related worship of the Old Testament Israelites, possibly in tandem with these same ten tribes' more biblically orthodox practices. 'Druid' derives from druthin (= servant of Truth), doubtfully from drus (= oak-tree). The Druids' motto was "The Truth against the world." In any case, Samaria fell in 722 B.C., the Jewish Monarchy ended, and Israel was deported to Niniveh. 625 B.C. saw the inception of the neo-Babylonian/Chaldean empire. Draco promulgated Athenian laws in 621. Ashur was destroyed in 614. Niniveh was destroyed in 612. The captivity of Judah in Babylon followed (604-534), and in 587 the First Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed and, as the saying goes, the rest is history.... I agree with Roger Scruton that "the high culture of our civilization contains knowledge which is far more significant than anything that can be absorbed from the channels of popular communication. This is a hard belief to justify, and a harder one to live with; indeed, it has nothing to recommend it apart from its truth." (An Intelligent Person's Guide to Modern Culture (Duckworth 1998, p.2).

Important Complementary Reference Data:

The Greek word 'histor' (= one who holds knowledge) is related to another Greek word 'histos' (= loom, or cloth), and Homer frequently praised the Wisdom of one famous woman weaver, Penelope. He also attributed to Circe "a great imperishable web, such as is the handiwork of goddesses, finely-woven and beautiful, and glorious"....


B.C. -

943-730 Twenty-second (Bubastis) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

817-730 Twenty-third (Tanis) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

747-353 Baktun of the Mind Teachings.

720-715 Twenty-fourth (Sais) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

715-668 Twenty-fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty.

664-525 Twenty-sixth (Sais) Dynasty - Late Period.

625 Daniel the prophet born.

606 "In [this] the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylong unto Jerusalem, and besieged it. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of G-d: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure-house of his god." (Dn 1:1-2)

603 Daniel both disclosed and interpreted Nebuchanezzar's dream: "Thou, O king, sawest, and beheld a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff upon the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them; and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth" (Dn 2:31-35). Nebuchadnezzar's golden Babylonian empire was replaced by the silver of the Medo-Persian in 538, by the bronze of the Grecian in 330, and by the iron of the Roman in 63 B.C.

594 Solon reformed the Athenian constitution.

572 Zenith of Nebuchanezzar's ascendancy in Babylon, a vast four-square city, 56 miles in circuit, with walls 350 feet high and 87 feet broad at the top - wide enough for six chariots to race abreast. "Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; peace be multiplied unto you. I thought it good to shew the signs and wonders that the high G-d hath wrought toward me. How great are his signs! and how mighty are his wonders! his kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion is from generation to generation. I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in mine house, and flourishing in my palace: I saw a dream which made me afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed and the visions of my head troubled me I saw, and behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great. The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth. The leaves thereof were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and it was meat for all: the beasts of the field had shadow under it, and the fowls of heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was fed of it. I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold, a watcher and a holy one came down from heaven; he cried aloud, and said thus, Hew down the tree, and cut off his branches, and shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from his branches: Nevertheless, leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts in the grass of the earth: Let his heart be changed from man's, and let a beast's heart be given unto him; and let seven times pass over him. This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and givet it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen" (Dn 4: 1-5, 10-18). After one year's probation the king was dethroned for seven years, but then happily restored for a few years until his death in 561.

561 Evil-Merodach, king of Babylon in succession to his father, released Jehoiachin, king of Judah, from 37 years in prison, and invited him to share meals with him daily.

559 Evil-Merodach assassinated in a revolt led by his brother-in-law and successor, Neriglissar.

556 Neriglissar was succeeded by his son, Labashi Marduk.

555 Labashi Marduk was killed, and Nabunaid, commandant of the Babylonian armies and son of Adadguppi, high priestess of Sin/Nanna, ruled over Sumer and Akkad, and restored the temples of Sin, of his and Ningal's daughter, Anu's great-granddaughter, the Goddess of Warfare and Love: Inanna/Innin/Ninni/Ishtar/Eshdar/Astarte/Aphrodite/Venus, and, at Sippar (seat of Sumer's supreme court) that of her twin-brother, Utu/Shamash. Meanwhile, Belshazzar (a grandson on his mother's side of Nebuchadnezzar) was installed as regent in Babylon, since his father, Nabunaid, had preferred to reside elsewhere himself.

544 May: Sitting under the Bodhi Tree at Buddha Gaya just outside the village of Uruvela in North India on the night of the Full Moon, Siddhartha Gautama Buddha attained Supreme Enlightenment.

541 Daniel was about 84 years old - "In the first year of Belzhazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed; then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters." (Dn 7:1). In this vision Babylon was represented by a lion, the Medes & Persians by a bear, the Greeks by a leopard with four wings, and the Romans by a beast with iron teeth and ten horns and more "Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet; and of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom." (Dn 7: 19-22).

538 Daniel about 87 years old - "In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man. And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision. So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision. Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright. And he said, Behold, I will make theee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be." (Dn 8: 1, 15-19).

538 Belshazzar's feast and fall: MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN (Dn 5:25). Babylon taken by the Medes led by Darius, who ruled only for two years, in alliance with the Persians.

537 "It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom a hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom; and over these three presidents; of whom Daniel was first... Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian." (Dn 6:1-2, 28). 88-years-old Daniel's vision of the seventy weeks - "In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; in the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem... Know therefore and understand [says Gabriel], that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem [in 445 B.C.] unto the Messiah the Prince [entering on a donkey in procession into Jerusalem officially to be accepted or rejected as King] shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and until the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations, he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate." (Dn 9: 1-2, 25-27).

536 Cyrus the Achaemenid ascended the Persian imperial throne and decreed the liberation of all Jews within the empire that they might return to Jerusalem, but relatively few did so (Ezra 1:1-3).

533 Daniel's last vision at age 92: "In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, who name was called Beleshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision... I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth" (Dn 10:1,21). Notice that "history stands related to prophecy, not as its elucidation or interpretation, but only as its verification. Prophecy throws light upon history, not vice versa... Jesus made prephecy the arbiter of the event. It is continually said that He did thus and so, 'that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets.' Now if we take prophecy aright, we will be throwing true light forward into the womb of unborn events, and the creations of G-d's providences will be coming forth as the children of that light." (W.C.Stevens, The Book of Daniel, Oliphants, Edinburgh & London, 1915, revised 1918, pp. 167-8.) "And the king [the well-known king from Greece, the Anti-Christ eclipsing all others] shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the G-d of gods and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done... From the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." (Dn 11:36; 12:11-13).

525-404 Twenty-seventh (Persian) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

509 Romans threw off Etruscan rule; Rome became a republic.

480 Heraclitus taught Wisdom is One only.

458 The Persian Emperor Artaxerxes (465-424) authorised Ezra to go to Jerusalem to teach (Ezra 7).

450 Herodotus noted the world-wide importance of the British tin-trade among the inhabitants of the Cassiterides, i.e., in the British Isles, viz., in Devon and Cornwall.

447 Building of Parthenon began.

445 As is clear from Nehemiah (1 & 2) and Esther (2 & 3), in this year Artaxerxes in agreement with Esther his Queen decreed that Jerusalem be rebuilt and refortified after all the losses suffered by the Jews as a result of Haman's plot against Esther's foster cousin, Mordecai and all his people, not withstanding Esther's counter-measures, in 453.

404-399 Twenty-eighth (Sais) Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.

399 Death of Socrates.

399-380 Twenty-ninth (Mendes) Dynasty.

384-322 Aristotle lived.

380-343 Thirtieth (Sebennytos) Dynasty.

353 B.C.-41 A.D.Baktun of the Anointed One.

353 Pytheas mentioned the Cornish tin-trade.

350 Aristotle referred to the Cornish tin-trade.

343-332 Thirty-first (Persian) Dynasty.

332 Alexander the Great conquered Ancient Egypt.

332-30 Ptolemaic Period.

274 Asoka ruled two-thirds of the Indian sub-continent.

214 Great Wall of China constructed by linking the already existing walls.

150 Polybius referred to the Cornish tin-trade (also mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, and by Posidonius).

146 Carthage destroyed.

107-86 Consulship of Marius, who created Rome's professional army.

86-34 Sallust lived. Of myths he wrote: "These things never happened but always are."

70-19 Virgil lived.

65 B.C.-30A.D. In succession, two solitaries lived and meditated in the Culbone valley.

55 Julius Caesar in Britain for two weeks in August. He was amazed by the number of populous cities, the architecture, universities of learning (e.g., and using the modern names, at York, Canterbury, Winchester, St. Alban's, Cambridge, Carlisle, Manchester, Colchester, Worcester, Chester, Doncaster, Warwick, Bristol, Leicester, Lincoln, Gloucester, Chichester, Cirencester, Dorchester, Carmarthen, Caernarvon, Exeter and Bath), the large population, and the people's belief in the immortality of the soul.

54 Julius Caesar in Britain for two months from July.

49 Caesar crossed the Rubicon, invaded Rome, and became dictator.

44 Caesar assassinated.

31 Battle of Actium: naval victory of Octavian over Antony and Cleopatra made him the unchallenged master of the Roman world.

19 Death of Virgil.

6 17 April (?): birth of Jesus in Bethlehem - numismatic and other evidence suggests Palestine's then association with Aries, and on that day the Moon eclipsed Jupiter in Aries. Kepler had instead suggested 7 B.C. as a likely date, since Saturn and Jupiter were then, according to one calculation, in conjunction in Pisces at the end of February, on 12 April, 29 May and 4 December. Other astronomers have revised these dates, e.g., replacing 4 December 7 B.C. by 15 September. 6 B.C., and while the esoteric astrologer Robert Powell accepts, indeed, 7 B.C. as the birth-year of Jesus-Zoroaster with Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions in Pisces on 27 May, 6-7 June, 29 September and 3 December, he nevertheless assigns the birth of Jesus the son of Mary of Nazareth to a moment just before midnight on 6/7 December 2 B.C. (cfr. his Christian Hermetic Astrology, Golden Stone Press, 1991). Note, in any event, that Herod's rule was from 37-4 B.C. only.

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